Dr. Zmkan Ali Saleem is Senior Researcher at IRIS. In that role, he has served as lead researcher for projects funded by Konrad Adenauer Stiftung and the Norwegian Research Council. He holds a PhD in Politics and International Studies from the University of Leeds/UK and teaches in the College of Political Science at the University of Sulaimani. His doctoral research examined the domestic determinants of Iran’s regional security policies. Saleem’s later research examined the domestic and regional determinants of Turkey’s foreign policy toward the conflicts in Iraq and Syria. Saleem has contributed to the Fikra Forum at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, where he focused on the issue of sectarianism in Iraq. His current research interests include the role of non-state security actors in shaping governance and stability in Iraq.