Capstones | The American University of Iraq Sulaimani

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1. Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Concrete By Tile Factory Waste

Students: Areena Ismail, Daryan Raouf, Sana Soran,  Andesha Ibrahim 
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Ashty Qazzaz
Tile factories around the world and in Kurdistan have strict standards for the tiles that they produce. When a tile is made and it is not up to standard, it becomes waste. There are no effective methods for completely re-using this tile waste in construction. This research aims to solve this problem by re-using all the tiles that have become waste as aggregates in the production of concrete. Through a literature review, it was discovered that tile waste aggregates improve on the mechanical properties of concrete.
Experimental results show that replacing aggregates with crushed tiles increases the mechanical strength of concrete. But in some high percentages, the replacement slightly decreases tensile and flexural strength. It was discovered that the best percentage of aggregate replacement with crushed tiles is 10%.

2. Behavior of Concrete Under Multiaxial State of Loading

Students: Shaee Kamaran, Shatw Omer, Helin Bikar, Sawen Rzgar
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Ashty Qazzaz
One of the most crucial responsibilities of engineers while constructing a project is calculating and measuring that amount of load that a body can endure; he or she must know behaviors of each material that has been used plus the behavior of the soil to ensure the success of the project. The first portion of the report gives general information about concrete, the problem, and its effects.
Secondly, this research report specifically was about the behavior of concrete under multiaxial stress loading. It shows how concrete reacts while a load is applied. Additionally, in this report, many reliable and beneficial sources were used to provide evidence and approved information about the behavior of concrete when placed under a multiaxial stress loading.
The third part of the report clarifies how the research is conducted and what sources were used to collect data.

3. Effect of High Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Concrete

Students: Ali Zuher, Hevar Rebwar, Hamun Hallwan, Abdullah Farhad
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Ashty Qazzaz
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of high temperature on the mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity. After exposing the specimen of concrete to high degree of temperature, a reduction in compressive and tensile strength of concrete has been noticed.
To solve the problem of mechanical properties reduction with the specimen being exposed to heat, some additives such as silica fume, polypropylene (pp) and glass fibers have been added to the concrete. The adding of polypropylene (pp), silica fume, and glass fibers to the concrete resulted in improvement in fire resistance of concrete and improvement of mechanical properties of concrete like compressive strength.

4. Mechanical Properties of Concrete at Low Temperature

Students: Sozyar Abdulkarim, Mzhda Bahaalddin, Aran Luqman, Kozhir Ibrahim, Shad Cholly
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Ashty Qazzaz
The project revolves around investigating the properties of concrete under low temperature. Better put in other words, how sharply the low temperature places its footprint on the mechanical properties of concrete. It is quite pronounced that there are approximately 20 different types of concrete, however, the report concentrates on normal weight concrete with the informative provision of several other types of concrete for the sake of argument and comparison. The scope of our research narrowed down on the mere mechanical properties of concrete. Our study and procedural works explored the accurate and precise sets of data collected and later examined to further deepening our understanding and scientifically conduct our evaluation and assessment regarding the properties of concrete.

5. Cement-based Mortar Improvement by Limestone Powder

Students: Binayi Sami, Vanas Sardar, Chawan Azad, Shnya Sarwat, Shanya Yassin
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Ashty Qazzaz
Limestone is a type of sedimentary rock that is very common and used since ancient times. It is formed from calcium carbonate and is a major ingredient for construction materials. It serves different purposes depending on how it is used and is also affordable. This rock can be used as its original form or in powder form.
In the first part of this report, an introduction about limestone is given and a detailed revision of several reports on limestone powder. In the second part of the research paper, an experiment is done and the results are analyzed and discussed.
With all the research done, we found out that limestone powder is a good additive that can be used in the production of concrete, it can improve the process of cement hydration and it is also good for poor filling. We also found out that the ratio of limestone powder added/replaced with cement is very important, meaning that replacing 15% of the total amount of cement can increase the compressive strength, but increasing that amount of limestone powder to 20%, shows a reduction in compressive strength. The same goes for tensile strength. On the basis of this research, it is recommended to replace a ratio of cement with limestone powder because its factors modify the cement.

6. Improvement of Concrete or Cement Based Mortar Using Rice Husk Ash

Students: Ares Namiq, Brwa Mohammed, Rebaz Kareem, Zardasht Azad
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Ashty Qazzaz
Nowadays, the increase of waste and maintaining the environment is a very important topic in all parts of society. Also, decreasing the cost of a project is another challenging goal for all project owners. Because of these reasons, we thought about using organic waste in one of the expensive materials of construction: cement. This important additive is rice husk ash (RHA), which is a waste of paddy and very rich in silica and can be used as a pozzolanic additive in concrete.
In this paper, we are trying to test the effects of RHA on the properties of concrete and mortar. From a review of some previous papers, we concluded that RHA affects the cost of the construction due to the replacement of the cement by the RHA with some specific percent. Some points are documented in the literature review and a plan for how data should be collected and outlined.

7. Energy Harvesting Bike Machine

Students: Aroz Hama Taqi, Mohammed Amr Mohammed, Nina Amanj Omer, Lano Hunar Jamal, Danar Rzgar Ismaeel, Shinrwe Fatih Abdullah, Zhila Shwan Haseeb, Ismael jamal Ahmed, Khuncha Mariwan
Faculty Superviser: Dr. Ameen El-Sinawi
With each passing second and minute, the planet becomes more developed, and people continue to use more resources to meet their demands and needs. We have not yet had 24 hours of consecutive electricity in Kurdistan regardless of the rapid development in this sector around the world, and achieving this involves having enough sources and equipment. Electricity and other sources of energy have often been generated using mechanical energy. Furthermore, many people are becoming more conscious of their health and physical well-being these days. Every neighborhood has a variety of gyms and fitness centers. People exercise with various equipment in order to obtain the desired result for their body. The majority of these devices are mechanical and require movement. In addition, our planet is running out of non-renewable fuels including natural gas, oil, coal, and nuclear power, so it's only fair to catch whatever tool is available to harvest and produce as much energy as possible so that we can be left with enough resources for a longer time.
We designed a bike that can extract energy and use it as a source of electricity or power for that purpose. The bike provides us with the energy to save for future battery use. We needed a gym bike, a belt, battery lead, generator and inverter. The design was carried out under supervision of Dr. Ameen El-Sinawi at American University of Iraq, Sulaimani. The design costs of the project were also paid by the University. Before starting the prototype, we had a clear understanding of the details and requirements of the project. We trust that the project will serve a goal and it is a good start to understand how important it is to harvest and produce energy in a world that has constantly demands more energy sources.

8. Solar-Powered Grass Cutter

Students: Warzer Othman, Akam Namiq, Rawand Abdulla, Haval Hazhar, Mustafa Ihsan, Peshawa Hersh, Abdurrahman Tareq, Kosrat Mahdi
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Ameen El-Sinawi
Green areas are very important in keeping the temperature of cities normal. People in this part of the world are usually known for greening their houses and surroundings, and as everything else, when you plant a tree or grass in your yard if you do not take care of it, it will die or will not grow well. A lawn is an essential part of any garden, and in order to maintain it, a particular type of grass cutter should be used to cut the grass and help its growth. There are many types of grass cutters on the market, and usually, they are inefficient or not environmentally friendly. To solve this problem, we came up with the idea of Solar-Powered Grass Cutter which can help in properly taking care of the lawn in any garden. With our project, whether the machine is autonomous or remote-controlled, it will be able to resolve some issues that come from using conventional lawnmowers. The most prevalent issues with conventional lawnmowers are that they usually have high sound levels and might disturb or wake the neighbors up when they are operated. Another issue is tiresome usage of push lawnmowers, but these issues will no longer be present with our design. This machine is also environmentally friendly, efficient, durable, reliable, and lightweight.
Since one of the main objectives of this project is harnessing solar energy from sun rays, the machine has a 20W Mono-Crystalline Solar Panel to use solar energy to charge two 6V 5Ah lead-acid batteries that also power three motors for movement and grass-cutting. Also, the machine is easy to work with as it weighs approximately 5 kg, so it’s easy to lift and to store. Additionally, we have decided to use stainless steel as the main material for the frame due to its outstanding properties of being durable, rust and water damage resistant, and attractive-looking. Moreover, one of the sections of this paper is dedicated for the complete drawings, diagrams, and parts assembly for the project so that it could be better understood and imagined.
After thorough research and calculations, we’ve come to the conclusion to recommend going with the autonomous option for the machine and install two ultrasonic sensors on the machine, one on the front and one on the back for guidance, safety, and obstacle detection. Furthermore, our team recommends to use the machine when children and animals aren’t nearby for a smoother operation, and it should be kept out of their reach as well when it’s stored.

9. Dune Buggy Design

Students: Diako Seerwan, Mohammed Nadir, Revar Mohammed, Diwan Bakr, Lawin Othman, Rebaz Ahmad, Govand Naaman, Kazhi Jamil, Saman Rasheed 
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Ameen El-Sinawi
The report is dedicated to explaining and presenting a project plan about creating a revolutionary design of the commercial dune buggy. Off-road cars are one of the modern types of cars capable of driving on and off any smooth and rock-strewn surface. The most creative part of this project is the usage of lightweight material and an inexpensive and efficient engine that can produce a high acceleration in the least amount of time. Moreover, our engineering team decided to make a new modern and eco-friendly off-road car because we believe it is a great idea to advance our country's tourism sector. The dune buggy possesses features and characteristics such as 14.69 horsepower and carbon steel material.
The design process, and quality 2D and 3D drawings of the dune buggy can be seen and explained throughout the report. Moreover, the report contains the result of nine people’s hard work in both Design I and Design II classes. To explain, in Design I the group chose a revolutionary dune buggy design among three other choices. The theoretical calculations and expectations were written and presented in a report during the Fall 2020 semester, whereas, this report is more focused on the building and testing process of the physical prototype build over the course of three months.

10. Chenar, The Tree Planting Robot

Students: Abdullah Shahmal, Hasar Ali, Omer Hussein, Prwsha Rahman, Zhiar Shirwan 
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Ameen El-Sinawi
Climate change has been rising rapidly lately in the Middle East, and it’s getting worse every day. This phenomenon has also impacted the Kurdistan region. One way to fight climate change and prevent it from spreading is to plant trees. This is why this project is focusing on a robot which can plant trees in the University's campus. The robot is named Chenar, and Chenar can be controlled remotely from far distance. The main important part of Chenar is the planting system that consists of a jack screw and piston gun attached to the ends. There are also blades attached to the ends. These components are powered by three motors.
Coding and programming are needed for the motors and other components to function properly. Chenar wase supervised by the mentorship of Dr. Ameen El-Sinawi and Ms. Hanar Hadi.

11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

Students: Roman Mohammed, Sewa Hawdang, Lara Abdulkarim, Roza Jawhar, Mohammed Najeeb 
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Ameen El-Sinawi
A UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is an aerial object that does not require having a pilot onboard. This is because a remote controller or an autopilot, that is connected to the UAV, is used to control the flight of the UAV. UAVs perform several different tasks that ease life. Some of these tasks include anything from delivering products such as food or packages, recording videos at heights that humans cannot reach, to collecting various kinds of information, especially when used for military purposes. As a team, we were requested by the Engineering Department at American University of Iraq, Sulaimani to design and build a UAV that would be the first university-made UAV in the Kurdistan Region. This was under the supervision of the course instructor Dr. Ameen El-Sinawi, and the project mentor Ms. Hanar Hadi.
The main clients of the project are photographers, delivery service companies and anyone who may need a UAV for other purposes. The requirements and the constraints of the project included the product being cost efficient, meeting the safety standards for customers to use, lightweight in order to avoid flight complications for the UAV, ensuring it is user-friendly, built-in GPS system for proper flight navigation and high flight velocity (airspeed). In order to achieve these requirements, the team went over existing fixed-wing UAV models to conduct detailed research about the UAV such that the integrated GPS system functions properly and that the most cost efficient as well as suitable materials are used for it to avoid flight complications. The materials used are mostly foam due to its light weight which makes it easier to control during flying. The weight of the whole UAV was 1100g and with the autopilot, 1300g.

12. Design of an Aluminum Foundry with Minimal Heat Loss

Students: Sardam A. Rasul, Qabas K. Abbas, Zahraa A. Abdulkader, Mersin S. Qadr 
Supervisor: Dr. Nathaniel Switzner
Aluminum is one of the most commonly used engineering materials, finding its use in a variety of fields including construction, architecture, aerospace, automotive, consumer products, and many more. It has unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, such as a high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance, which make it highly demanded. One of the key advantages of aluminum is recyclability. Aluminum is 100% recyclable, requiring a small fraction of the energy required for primary production. Aluminum recycling is primarily accomplished by melting in foundries.
This proposal focused on designing an aluminum foundry with optimal effectiveness, efficiency, safety, and temperature control. In many aluminum foundries, a large amount of heat is lost due to two factors: firstly,  poor insulation, and secondly, the inability to measure the crucible temperature. This proposal sought to use engineering fundamentals to alleviate these two conditions and make other improvements to design the optimal aluminum foundry within the given constraints. Reliable data were gathered regarding the working principles and technical background of an aluminum foundry. Also, analytical models were developed to understand the effects of different parameters on the function of the foundry. Along with the analytical methods, numerical analyses were used to identify interrelationships between the different parameters to explore their combined effects on the function of the foundry.
After understanding the basics of aluminum foundry design and reviewing existing designs, several ideas were developed to improve the design based on the desired engineering characteristics. Then, different concepts were generated using the engineering design process, and criteria were developed to select the best design concept. The final design of the aluminum foundry was selected and drafted. Then, the cost of each subcomponent of the design was estimated. A failure modes and effects analysis was performed to evaluate possible failure modes for the design and how to mitigate them.
The final design was successfully manufactured. The design was divided into several parts, such as structural design, thermal design, electrical design, and control design. Some modifications have been made during the manufacturing process to improve the design. The final prototype was successfully tested with fulfilling the structural, electrical, and thermal designs.

13. The Effect of Curing Temperature and By-Product Cement Replacement Materials on the Mechanical Properties of Ultra High-Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC)

Students: Maryam Muayad, Reyam Ali, Rahand Hasan, Hawraa Ali, Nasir Hasan, Miran Burhan
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Aram Hassan 
Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) is a unique type of concrete with outstanding mechanical properties with high compressive strength and workability. ENGR 491 investigated several studies and their mix proportions along with their correlated effect on their mechanical properties. However, in ENGR 492, one mix design was chosen, and the regression equations were solved based on it. The objective of this report was to analyze and verify some of the mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength, fracture energy, density, and toughness experimentally, conducted in the laboratory of American University of Iraq, Sulaimani. However, the remaining mechanical properties were analyzed theoretically such as modulus of elasticity, directs, and split tensile strength in addition to the prior properties.
The error percentage of the previously conducted studies compared to the anticipated results was low, which ranged from 1-10%. However, the error percentage of the anticipated compared to the experimental was high due to the inefficiency of the devices and materials.

14. The Effects of Recycled Glass Sizes on the Mechanical Properties of Normal Concrete

Students: Mastan Rasti Jabar, Sozyar Bakhtyar Ahmed, Danyar Mohammed Tahir, Karzok Nasralddin Fars, Bnar Salahalddin Saeed, Mandela Othman Karim 
Faculty Supervisor: Dr. Aram Hassan
Concrete is a major construction material, and it is the ruling substance in the engineering field because of its strength, durability, and overall long serviceability in construction. Concrete is very strong and although it can be suitable in the majority of engineering-related projects. According to its need, it has not denied scientists and engineers the ability to enhance its mechanical and physical properties, and while they are at it, it is also important to focus on economy and the environment because it is an essential factor when it comes to designing a new type of concrete.
The objective of this report was to introduce an enhanced type of concrete and analyze its properties and see whether it is suitable in terms of its mechanical properties, economy, and the environment. The aim of this research was to use crushed recycled glass in concrete so that its properties would be modified while helping the environment by reducing the amount of waste glass materials in it. From the data that has been collected in design 1, it was obvious that using glass fibers as a partial replacement of concrete has economic benefits, and it also showed significant benefits for the environment as well as improving the properties of concrete. The studies showed that recycled glass had a noticeable influence on the compressive strength and the flexural strength of concrete.
The outcomes, from design 1, exhibited that some particular glass sizes tend to increase the compressive strength of concrete by 5 MPA and would increase the flexural strength by 2 MPA while advancing some of the other properties of the concrete such as tensile strength, slump, and density. This result is compared to the data collected from the practical part of this capstone project. The outcomes acquired from this study all serve the purpose of satisfying the customer requirements/demands, and what can be achieved in terms of strength, quality, durability and price.